Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
Members of Committee of Union and Progress left the country with the end of World War I. Every side of Anatolia was started to be invaded. War of Independence under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is a political and military campaign to protect the unity of the country after the invasion of Ottoman Empire which was defeated in World War I. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who deserved his reputation with the success of Çanakkale War, went to Samsun to organize the resistance in May 19, 1919. He held congresses in Amasya, Erzurum and Sivas to tell the current state of the country to the public. In the meantime, Greek army invaded Izmir in May 16, 1919 with the approval of its allies. In November 1919 French invaded Adana, Maraş, Antep and Urfa. A strong resistance movement brought French to ceasefire in May 1920.
Invasion forces that raided Ottoman Parliament arrested senators supporting national struggle.
Senators escaping from the raid moved to Ankara. After Ottoman Parliament dissolving itself for unable to work in Istanbul, Turkey Grand National Assembly was established in April 23, 1920. The parliament and government established in Ankara took the administration of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was elected council president. So, two effective managements emerged, Ankara government which was effective in Anatolia along with Ottoman government which was effective in Istanbul and vicinity of Istanbul.
After the successful wars by establishing a regular army, Turkey was saved from invasion. Turkish War of Independence ended with the conclusion of the Lausanne Treaty on July 24, 1923. Regality was abolished on November 1, 1922 and Ottoman Empire was taken from the stage of history after UK government calling both Ankara and Ottoman governments to Lausanne while the preparation of the conference. Sultan Mehmet
Vahdeddin who thought his life was in risk left Istanbul with a British battleship in the morning of November 17, 1922.
Ankara became the new capital with the law adopted in the parliament in October 13, 1923. Republic, based on the principle of national sovereignty, was declared in October 29, 1923. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who brought the War of Independence into a success, served as the President until he died in November 10, 1938.