For most city buses you must buy your bilet (ticket) in advance it is special tickets kiosk, either at a major bus terminal or at a transfer point. Some shops near bus stops also sell local bus tickets, which normally cost around €0,65 .
In some cities notably Istanbul pry with buses operate on the same route as municipal buses. The private buses are usually older, accept either or tickets and follow the same routes as municipal buses.
Dolmuses are minibuses that operate on set routes within a city. They are usually faster, more comfortable and only slightly more expensive than the bus. These days only a few cities have old-fashioned, shared taxi dolmuses (Bursa, Trabzon and Izmir are examples).
Once you've got to grips with a few local routes, you will feel confident about picking up a dolmus at the kerb. In the larger cities, stopping places are marked by signs with a black'd' on a blue-and-white background reading 'Dolmus Indirme Bindirme Yeri' (Dolmus Boarding and Alighting Place). They're usually conveniently located near major squares, terminals or intersections, but you may need to ask the driver: '[your destination] dolmus var mi?'
Several cities now have underground or partially underground metros including Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa and Ankara. These are usually quick and simple to use, although you may have to go right through the ticket barriers before you find a route map. Most metros require you to buy a jeton (transport token) for around €0,65 and insert it into the ticket barrier.
All over Turkey taxis are fitted with digital meters and most drivers routinely use them.
Taxis are plentiful and the best boarded at designated taxi stops. Payment is according to the on-board meter. All taxis in Turkey are required by law to have an on-board meter. However, set prices are more common for intercity journeys which are posted clearly at the taxi stop.
Some taxi drivers - particularly in Istanbul- try to demand flat payments from foreigners. Sometimes they offer a decent fare and pocket the money instead of giving the cap owners their share. But most of the time they will ask an exorbitant amount, give you grief and refuse to run the meter. If this happens find another caband if convenient,complain to the police. Only when you are using a taxi for a private tour involving waiting time (eg to an archeological site) should you agree a set fare - and then it should always be confirmed in advance to avoid argument later.
Several cities also have overground tramways (trams), which are a quick and efficient way of getting around normally you pay around €0,65 to use a tram