Anatolia, starting from the early Paleolithic period,has provided rich opportunities to hunter-gatherer groups. Even rock paintings and primitive stone tools are found in natural caves and rock shelters, major settlements are in Istanbul such as Yarımburgaz Cave, Karain in Antalya,Beldibi,Öküzini and Belbaşi Caves.
Tablet belonging to assyrian who brought writing to Anatolia (Kültepe 1800s B.C.)
In The Mesolithic Period (ca. 16.000-10.000 B.C.) instead of big animals, small and agile anímals took place. Hunter-gatherer groups used different hunting tools to hunt these animals.
In the Neolithic Period (ca. 10.000-5.500 B.C.), first foundation of today’s civilization, village settlements were started in the fertile soil between Euphrates and Tigris rivers. In this period that time period differs from area to area, natural and primitive shelters changed to village life,hunting and gathering changed to agriculture and animal husbandry. Production started. Mankind bound to soil learned new discoveries quickly,and made dwellings and stone temples by drying mud bricks under the sun. Göbeklitepe open air temple site,where excavations continue near Sanlurfa, was built in 10.000 B.C. and it’s the oldest religious building in the world. Urban settlements following the large number of villages are: Çayönü (Diyarbakir),Asikli Mound (Aksaray). Hacılar (Burdur) and Çatalhöyük (Konya).
Various metals that are used after the Neolithic period are one of the factors determining the ages. By using copper besides stonë, the Chalcolithic Period (5.500-3.000 B.C.)was entered.Copper instruments took place of stone during this period.Population began to.grow, residential areas became common. Important Chalcolithic settlements in Anatolia are Hacilar (Burdur), (Burdur) and Arslantepe (Malatya).
Early Bronze Age (3.000-2.000 B.C.) begins with obtaining bronze by mixing copper and tin. People started to live in cities surrounded by walls in this age when the first kingdoms were established. Mining and trade became more important in addition to agriculture and animal husbandry. In 2.500 B.C.Central Anatolia was shared between Hattie Principalities who were the local people of the area. It lacked a strong central authority. During this period,
important steps had been taken in urbanism, architecture and several works of art. Troy (Çanakkale), Beycesultan (Denizli), Alacahöyük (Çorum), Alişar (Yozgat), Gözlükule (Mersin) can be considered as the settlements of this period.
In 3.000 B.C., inscription was started to be used in Mesopotamia. Cuneiform reached Anatolia by trade with Assyrian in between 2.000 and 1.750 B.C. During this period, Kültepe (Kayseri) arose as an important center. In 1.750 B.C.,Assyrian colonists left Anatolia.
The first major central authority was established by the Hittites in Anatolia. It couldn’t be determined where exactly they came from.Living as principalities, Hittites created a central government by merging. Hattusili I who made Hattusha the principality center of Hatti developed the old Hittite government. King called Tabarna and queen called Tavananna ruled the government. King’s stand-alone decision-making authority is limited by the council pankush which was a noble council.
In 1450s B.C.,Hittite Kingdom was developed as a great power by TuthaliaII. This period is also called the Hittite Imperial Period. The Kadesh Treaty is the first war with Egyptians. Suppiluliuma II (1.200-1.190 B.C.) is the last emperor of Hittites.At the end of this period, sea tribes, who attacked Anatolia,made a great destruction on Hittites, and eliminated the weakened Hittite Empire. Burnt, destroyed and desolated Central Anatolia entered a dark age till 750 B.C.Political gap before Hittite period showed itself again. Some Hittite princes who was able to save their lives from anarchy, continued to live for their some time in the south as city principalities.This period) is called the Late Hittite Period (1.200-700 B.C.).At the end of the 8th century B.C., those principalities lost freedom and joined the Assyrian Empire.
In the reign of the powerful Hittite, Hurrians lived in eastern Anatolia. Hurrians were divided into several tribal with their chiefs. Environmental Threats led them to unite, so that the Urartu Government (850s B.C.)was established. Its capital was Tushpa, today’s Van. As a strong country Urartu was eliminated at the end of the 7th and beginning of the 7th centuries B.C.
Phrygians,who came with the migration which eliminated Hittites in the beginning of 12th century B.C., emerged as a central government in 750 B.C. Gordion was the capital of this highly cultural nation. Cimmerians burned the capital Gordion in 696. Nevertheless, Phrygians lived their lives as principalities preserving their cultural traditions in various parts of Central Anatolia until the Persian invasion.
World’s first written treaty Kadesh Peace Treaty) between Hittites and Egyptians (1269 B.C.)
Lydians, who lived in the Gediz and Cayster region, became one of the strongest countries since 7 B.C.Lydians became rich and strong by mining gold and forging it in their capital, Sardis. Lydians are the first to use money.Thereby, money brought significant commercial developments after taking the place of exchange in world trade. In the 6th century B.C., Persians under the command of Kyros attacked Lydia Government. Two powerful countries warred,and after 14 days of siege of Sardis, the Lydian Government eliminated.So,sovereignty of Persians began in Anatolia. During this period, Anatolia was administered by satrapies (governors).
Meanwhile, Ionic tribes who colonized in western Anatolia since 1.000 B.C.established a developed civilization by building important cities. In the 650s B.C.,western Anatolia became the world’s most advanced civilization.
Relief belonging to late Hittite period built by Tuwana King Warpalawas (700s B.C.) Fertility God Tarhundas and worshipping King Warpalawas across him
Hellenistic Period (330 BC.-30 B.C.): Macedonian King Alexander the Great entered Anatolia passing through Dardanelles and won the battle against Persians in 334. Alexander founded a great empire extending from Europe to India in the east and to Egypt in the south with the conquests he made.Hellenistic period lasts till the era of the Roman Emperor Augustus,30 B.C.After the death of Alexander the Great’s empire was divided among generals.An important part of Anatolia entered the administration of Pergamum. During this period, the city of Pergamum was the world’s leading culture and art center.
In science, architecture and art significant progress has been made In Anatolia. Architects became the leader of Roman art. Also, there was a solid foundation of Hellenic culture, a synthesis of Ionic-Anatolian culture in western Anatolia. Rich cities were formed in Southern Anatolia with the development of trade with the eastern Mediterranean. Pergamum and Ephesus were the most important cities in Western Anatolia.However,thewealth lived in coastal parts of Anatolia could not be moved to the inlands of Anatolia.
Statue Of River God Okeanos ( Roman Period, 2nd century A.D.)
Roman Period (30 B.C.-395 A.D.): During this period, traditional culture of Anatolia continues to live. Famous cities built in the Hellenistic period were equipped with sculptures and architectural works. Architectural elements such as vaults, arches and domes that Romans use, were also used in Anatolia to create large spaces with monumental buildings. In the 1st and 3rd centuries A.D., Anatolian cities were among the world’s richest and most important centers. New cities were built in the midlands of Anatolia.
Byzantine Period (395 A.D.-1453): Istanbul (Byzantium, New Rome, Police, Constantinople) which was the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D.became the center of Eastern Roman (Byzantine) after the empire divided into two in 395. Even Western Roman was demolished in the 5th century, Eastern Roman managed survive a thousand year. Hagia Sophia, which was built in the 6th century and still stands with all glory, is a wonder of the world from Byzantine.
The Byzantine Empire was switched to a central government system;the urban economy has lost its importance. As a result, the famous cities of the Hellenistic and Roman periods had reduced, while others fell into the importance of a village. At the beginning, The Byzantine which controlled the entire Anatolia had its borders narrowed after the Turks came to Anatolia and withdrew to Istanbul. After the conquest of Istanbul by Ottoman emperor Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, this country was taken from the stage of history.
Seljuk Period (1071-1308): The Turks whose homeland was Central Asia settled Anatolia by raids and immigration. The main event that Seljuk Turks settled in Anatolia is Malazgirt Battle in August 26, 1071. The battle between Seljuk emperor Alp Arslan and Byzantine emperor Romanus Diogenes ended in favor of Turks. The treaty between them didn’t happen because Diogenes was without a throne. So, Alp Arslan ordered the conquest of all Anatolia.Thus, Anatolia entered into dominance of Seljuk, and opened its doors to anew civilization. Great Seljuk Empire was divided in the time of Sultan Berkyaruk (1093-1104), and Anatolia stayed under the dominance of Turkey Seljuks. After 1243, Seljuk’s were just a weak country under the dominance of Mongols. In the 13th century, Turkoman governors claimed their independence, and many Turkish states including Ottomans shared Anatolia.
Conquest of Istanbul Fausto zonaro
Ottoman Empire (1299-1922): After the dispersion of Seljuk, Karamanids seemed to be the most powerful state amongst the Turkish states. However,Ottomans who made their center Söğüt, inside the city of Bilecik didn’t take notice. Ghazi Ertugrul was appointed to the Byzantine border by the order ofSeljuk Sultan Alaeddin. Chieftain Osman (Osman Bey) who took the lead in1821, declared independence in 1299 and established Ottoman Empire.
Sultan Osman Gazi, Founder of the Ottoman Empire
Istanbul was the last capital of the Ottomans after being conquered by SultanMehmet the Conqueror in 1453 and large lands were administered from here till the 20th century. Time of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) had the largest state borders.Ottoman Empire protected the large borders until the 17th century started to have major territorial losses after 1700. Ottoman Empire entered the 20th century weakening, and it was governed by the influence ofCommittee of Union and Progress after the dethronement of Abdul Hamid IIin 1909.
The socialite of this party, who had hopes to revert the old lands, entered the World War I with Germany on November 11, 1914. After four years of war, the lands of the defeated Ottoman Empire were shared by the intruder forces.War of Independence was initiated under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk for Ottomans remained silent to the invasion.
The Ottoman Empire was one of the world’s most powerful states in the 16th century. Dozens of new states have been established on the lands of dispersed empires in the 19th and 20th century. The sultans of this empire who ruled for 600 years belonged to the same family.
Republic of Turkey: Members of the Committee of Union and Progress left the country at the end of World War I. Every side of Anatolia started to be invaded. War of Independence under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk is a political and military campaign to protect the unity of the country after the invasion of the Ottoman Empire which was defeated in World War I. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who deserved his reputation with the success of Çanakkale War, went to Samsun to organize the resistance in May 19, 1919. He held congresses in Amasya, Erzurum and Sivas to tell the current state of the country to the public. In the meantime, the Greek army invaded Izmir on May 16, 1919 with the approval of its allies. In November 1919 French invaded Adana,Maraş, Antep and Urfa. A strong resistance movement brought the French to a ceasefire in May 1920.
Invasion forces that raided the Ottoman Parliament arrested senators supporting national struggle. Senators escaping from the raid moved to Ankara.After Ottoman Parliament dissolved itself for being unable to work in Istanbul, Turkey Grand National Assembly was established on April 23, 1920. The parliament and government established in Ankara took the administration of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was elected council president. So, two effective managements emerged, Ankara government which was effective in Anatolia along with the Ottoman government which was effective in Istanbul and the vicinity of Istanbul.
After the successful wars by establishing a regular army, Turkey was saved from invasion. The Turkish War of Independence ended with the conclusion of the Lausanne Treaty on July 24, 1923. Regality was abolished on November 1, 1922 and Ottoman Empire was taken from the stage of history after the UK government called both Ankara and Ottoman governments to Lausanne while the preparation of the conference. Sultan Mehmet Vahdeddin who thought his life was in risk left Istanbul with a British battleship in the morning of November 17, 1922.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his friend leaving the Assembly
Ankara became the new capital with the law adopted in the parliament on October 13,1923. The Republic, based on the principle of national sovereignty,was declared on October 29,1923. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who brought the War of Independence into a success, served as the President until he died in November 10,1938.