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Citadel

Above the tombs is the kale (citadel) or Harşena castle, perched precariously atop the cliffs and offering magnificent views. The remnants of the walls date from Pontic times, perhaps around the time of King Mithridates. The fortress was repaired by the Ottomans and again in the late 1980s. On a ledge just below the citadel is an old Russian cannon that is fired during Ramazan to mark the end of the daily fast.

To  reach  the  citadel,  cross  the  Künç Köprüsü and follow the Samsun road for about 1km to a street on the left marked ‘Kale’. It’s 1.7km up the mountainside to a small car park, then another steep 15-minute climb to the summit, marked by a flagpole. Travellers of either sex are advised not to go up unaccompanied.